Home Preface to Version 5.0 What's in a TV Station? Brief History and Overview Electricity 101 How It Connects Together Audio Analog Video Waveform Mons & Vectorscopes Monitors and TV Sets Cameras Lighting Switching and Video Effects Video Recording Editing for TV Film for TV Digital Video Transmission The Near Future of TV Appendices Bibliography


"If you read a lot of books you are considered well read. But if you watch a lot of TV, you're not considered well viewed."

-- Lily Tomlin


The online resource on your screen is a compendium of facts, figures, philosophies and theories that took almost two years to pull together back in the early 1990s and has been re-edited almost every year (or when I get around to it) since then. Each year, changes are made as technology progresses.

Some Thoughts on Words, Illustrations, the Internet, and Credit Where It Is Due


This bibliography chapter is over fourteen printed pages long - and that�s just the paper references. I�m almost certain that somewhere in this 300 plus page reference, I�ve used some phrase I may have read someplace before. If I have used your words and not given you proper credit, please let me know! I have lost count of the hundreds of articles I�ve read over the years, but I always want to give credit where it is due.

And...there's probably even more articles that I've forgotten!


Whenever I could possibly track back the source of an illustration that wasn�t my own, I have put a little "Courtesy of..." in the caption. If a diagram or photograph is yours (or your company�s) let me know and I will credit you appropriately. As well, if you really don�t want me to use your photograph or illustration (with the free credit and publicity to your company, book, journal or website), let me know and I will remove it immediately.

The Internet and The Bibliography

When first writing this book, often my desk would be covered with papers, photocopies, books with broken backs and little slips of paper tucked within. Usually, I'd read a few pages and then totally re-write confusing or intricate concepts. The stack of books and articles was literally a couple of feet high around me. Back then, there was no readily available Internet - all the source materials were mostly engineering tomes and journal articles.

Since those heady days, there is now the Internet. I have completely lost count of the number of websites I surfed this past summer alone (2003) just for the update to version 5.0. And, with the availability of excellent search engines, I�ve decided to not list every URL I�ve visited over the last several years - it would probably triple the length of the Bibliography section. Your own surfing investigations into television are encouraged!

Having said that, if you encounter a graphic or photo I�ve attached the "Courtesy of" details to, please drop by these wonderful websites, journals and authors and donate, subscribe, or just say thanks to them!

So, the following is a sort of Bibliography and Reference section. Some of this material is very dry; other items are extremely entertaining. Your own reading and investigation is encouraged. Enjoy.

Addicott, Harry. "Tutorial on Television Fundamentals, Development Report 6391-12," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Operations Development Department, (Sept. 1984).

Alten, Stanley R. Audio In Media, Second Edition. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1986.

Ampex Corporation. "A Complete Guide To Media & Formats," date unknown.

Applied Electronics. "Steadicam." Advertisement. 1999.

Aversa, Jeannine. "FCC approves digital TV", Associated Press, April 4, 1997.

Benedikt, Fred. "Tutorial on Colour Monitor Alignment and Television Viewing Conditions. Development Report 6272," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Operations Development Department, (Jan. 1982).

Bentz, Carl. "Small-format cameras: Y-C today," Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1992), 72-78.

Birkmaier, Craig. "New Ideas in Production Switching," BM/E, (April, 1988), 73-83.

Bleha, W.P. "Image Light Amplifier (ILA) Technology for Large-Screen Projection," SMPTE Journal, (October, 1997), 710-717.

Bloomfield, Larry. "Networks announce HDTV plans," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1998), 14-16.

Bloomfield, Larry. "The problem with timecode," Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1999), 16.

Box, Harry C. Set Lighting Technician's Handbook, Second Edition. Focal Press, 1996.

Brannigan, Alice. "Radio Way Back Then," Popular Communications, (February, 1993), 18-20

Brehl, Robert. "Canada's 2 DTH satellite firms pass 100,000-customer mark", The Globe and Mail, (July 30, 1998.)

Broadcast Engineering. "Fox," Broadcast Engineering, (April, 1999), 76.

Broadcast Engineering. "MPEG Update," Broadcast Engineering, (April, 1999), 20.

Broadcast Engineering. "Remember the Krell?" Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1998), 18.

Broadcast Professionals Forum, CompuServe Information Service. Ohio: CompuServe, 1990.

Brown, Richard. Various technical articles. Video News and Used. (Volumes 1-10).

Bryenton, Peter. "New directions in studio lighting", Broadcast Engineering, (April, 1997), 62-76.

Bugailiskis, John. "Changing channels: the dawn of WebTV", Broadcaster, (June, 1998), 16-21.

Bugailiskis, John. "OnTV news: you will believe your eyes," Broadcaster, (June, 1999), 12-13.

Bureau of Broadcast Measurement. 1988 Television Data: An Analysis of Broadcast Habits, Characteristics and Trends. April, 1988.

Canare. "Cables, Connectors and Patch Bays," sales brochure, 1991.

Caronna, Gaetano and Testa, Pierluigi. "Subjective Rating of Visible Aliasing in Color Television Tubes and Comparison with a Theoretical Model," SMPTE Journal, (May, 1999), 263-269.

Cavanaugh, Tom. "2'' Quadruplex Format," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Operations Development Department, (May, 1983).

CBC, et al. "Tape Recording Fundamentals," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Operations Development Department, (March, 1985).

Central Dynamics Limited. CDL480 Video Switcher. Service manual.

Chan, Curtis. "Building the first DBS facility: DirecTv," Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1994), 58-62.

Chan, Curtis. "Digital videotape formats demystified," Broadcast Engineering, (August, 1992), 62-66, 88, 94.

Chan, Curtis. "Inside digital video effects systems," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1993), 80-85.

Chimera. "20th Anniversary Product Catalog," sales brochure, 1999.

Cintel, Inc. "Electrum." Sales brochure. 1999.

Claudelli, Joe. "Using wireless microphones," Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1993), 74-78.

Connor, Charlie. "Diversity reception for wireless microphones," Broadcast Engineering, (January, 1993), 48-51.

Costello, Marjorie. "Digital Satellite System," Broadcast Engineering, (July, 1995), 24-28.

Costello, Marjorie. "The big picture for consumer television," Broadcast Engineering, (June, 1995), 26-28.

Darling, Carol. "The ABCs of HDTV", Broadcaster, (June, 1998), 26-27.

Dickerson, Donald E. "Speak Up," Popular Communications, (August, 1996), 44.

Dickie, Denise. "ONtv makes Canadian broadcasting history - virtually!" Broadcast Dialogue, (July/August 1999), 36-38.

Digital Processing Systems, Inc. "DPS-235 Component TBC / Synchronizer," sales brochure, date unknown.

Digital Processing Systems, Inc. "DPS-290 Component Transcoding TBC / Synchronizer," sales brochure, date unknown.

Drew, David N. A. "Practical studio productions using high-quality, low-cost virtual sets," SMPTE Journal, (September, 1997), 618-623.

Dynatech Video Group. "Master Control Switchers - MC-502B", sales brochure, 1993.

Dynatech Video Group. "The Art of Creative Problem Solving." Sales brochure. Date unknown.

Egripment. "Getting to Grip's." Sales brochure. Volume 10, 1999.

Electrosonic Systems. "Creative Videowall Systems,", sales brochure, 1993.

Electrosonics, Inc. "DR195 Diversity Wireless Receiver." Brochure, 1993.

Electrosonics, Inc. "Wireless Microphone Systems: Operational Basics and Applications." Booklet, 1993.

Enchin, Harvey, Rowan, Geoffrey. "Lost in space", The Globe and Mail, (August 17, 1996)

Enchin, Harvey. "Feasting from an 18-inch dish", The Globe and Mail, (November 2, 1996.)

Enchin, Harvey. "Small-dish TV gets mixed reception", The Globe and Mail, (March 29, 1997.)

Enchin, Harvey. "Teleglobe unit wins bid to launch wireless cable TV", The Globe and Mail, (August 7, 1997.)

Epstein, Steve. "Camera lenses," Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1994), 48-60.

Epstein, Steve. "Digital basics, part 1," Broadcast Engineering, (August, 1995), 12-13.

Epstein, Steve. "Digital basics, part 2," Broadcast Engineering, (September, 1995), 12-13.

Epstein, Steve. "Digital tape acquisition," Broadcast Engineering, (August, 1998), 74-81.

Epstein, Steve. "Special Report: DVCPRO," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1996), 80-82.

Fenton, Mark. "Nytone Video Slide Scanner," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1990), 100-102.

Ferre, David A. "What Ever Happened To Channel 1?," Radio-Electronics, (March, 1982), 43-46, 89.

Field, Keith. "Tutorial on Helical Scan Video Recorders," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Operations Development Department, (May, 1984).

Fink, Donald G. "The Forces at Work Behind the NTSC Standards," SMPTE Journal, (June, 1981), 498-502.

Flying Cam. Sales brochure. 1999.

Forester, Hulon. "Maintaining video monitors: focusing on CRTs," Broadcast Engineering, (December, 1992), 65-69.

Freed, Ken. "Video compression", Broadcast Engineering, (January, 1997), 46-52, 77.

Freed, Ken. "Wireless cable comes of age", Broadcast Engineering, (July, 1997), 62-65.

Friend, George, et al. Understanding Data Communications. Indianapolis, Indiana: Howard W. Sams & Company, 1984.

Great American Pattern, The. "Catalog 80 Plus," sales brochure, 1980.

Griggs, Robyn. "Cable's digital dilemma,", Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1998), 150-154.

Grob, Bernard. Basic Television: Principles and Servicing, Fourth Edition. McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1975.

Grolier's Academic American Encyclopedia, The Online Edition.

Articles used (among others): actinometer, alternating current, amplitude modulation, audio, audio frequency, blackbody radiation, cable and satellite transmission, cable tv, camera tube, Canada, candela, carborundum, cathode ray tube, communications satellite, digital, digital computer, digital instruments, digital technology, digital to analog converter, electric circuit, electromagnetic radiation, electron tube, fluorescent light, frequency, frequency allocation, frequency modulation, galena, klystron, lens, light, lighting devices, lissajous, loudspeaker, lumen, microphone, morse, ohm, picture tube, radio, power generation, radio and television broadcasting, recording, rectifier, refraction, satellite, sound, sound and acoustics, sound recording and reproduction, spectrum, stage lighting, stereophonic sound, teletext, television, television production, television resolution, television transmission, television transmission, television, noncommercial, thermionic emission, video camera, video recording technology, video technology. Grolier Electronic Publishing, 1990. Available on CD-ROM.

Harris, Christopher. "Fooling all of the audience, all of the time," The Globe and Mail, (October 4, 1997).

Hathaway, R. A., and Ravissa, Ray. "Development and Design of the Ampex Auto

Scan Tracking (AST) System," SMPTE Journal, (Dec. 1980), 931-934.

Heitmann, Jurgen. "The SMPTE D-6 Digital Recording Format," SMPTE Journal, (June, 1996), 339-344.

Hejtmanek, Phil. "Standards converters," Broadcast Engineering, (November, 1994), 66-80.

Hejtmanek, Phil. "Video servers," Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1996), 27-68.

Herman, Stephen, Koo, David, Miron, Amihai, Greenberg, Craig, Tuny, Chikiang. "Cancel that ghost," Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1993), 38-50.

Hobbs, Barry. "Broadcasters take a quantum leap with HDTV", Broadcaster, (June, 1998), 22-23.

Hoffner, Randall. "Audio Program Metering in the 1980s: The Work of the IEEE Audio Measurements Subcommittee," SMPTE Journal, (Aug. 1989), 590-593.

Holden, R., and Keeble, J. Radio and Television Arts: Technical Broadcast Course BRD 011 1989-90. 1990.

Hopkins, David. "Digital effects systems: Moving to software-based open systems,", Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1997), 88-92.

Howard, Edgar Lee. "Video Timing and Phasing," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1983), pages unknown.

Hunold, Kenneth. "Avid/Ikegami CamCutter," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1995), 24-28.

Hunold, Kenneth. "New camera technologies," Broadcast Engineering, (April, 1996), 72-76.

Hunold, Kenneth. "Understanding HD/SD conversion", Broadcast Engineering, (July, 1998), 86-91.

Hunold, Kenneth. "Videotape recorders," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1997), 100-103, 128.

Hyatt, Laurel. "Playing the waiting game," Broadcaster, (January, 1999), 10-12.

Image North Technologies, Inc. "Inscriber VMP." Sales brochure. 1995.

Jelly, Doris H. Canada: 25 Years In Space. Ottawa: Polyscience Publications Inc., in co-operation with the National Museum of Science and Technology, 1988.

Jenkins, C. Francis. "History of the Motion Picture," SMPTE Journal, (March, 1989 - reprinted from 1921), 188-194.

Kaplan, Sam H. "The History of Color Picture Tubes and Some Future Projections," SMPTE Journal, (May, 1990), 396-400.

Kaufhold, Gerry. "Automatic scan tracking," Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1992), 16.

Kaufhold, Gerry. "Looking into CCDs - Parts 1 - 3," Broadcast Engineering, (May, June, July, 1992), p. 16.

Keeble and Vanderburgh. Radio and Television Arts: BRD 304 Advanced Television Production Theory Notes 1989/90. 1990.

Koprowski, Gene. "Selecting video and PC monitors," Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1995), 44-49.

Kreig, Andrew. "Bells are ringing for wireless cable", Broadcast Engineering, (June, 1996), 130-131.

Kufluk, Andy. Radio and Television Arts: BRD 304 - BRD 404 Advanced Television Theory (Technical) Third Year Lesson Notes. Burlington, Ontario: CDM Business Services Ltd., 1977.

Kufluk, Andy. Radio and Television Arts: BRD 102 Television Production Theory (Technical) Second Year Lesson Notes. Burlington, Ontario: CDM Business Services Ltd., 1976.

Lavers, Daphne. "DTV: conversion to DTV in Canada moving at a snail's pace,", Broadcast Dialogue, (May, 1999), 30-40.

Lavers, Daphne. "The picture is clear", Broadcast Dialogue, (July/August, 1998), 8-17.

Lehtinen, Rick, and Bentz, Carl. "The D-1 and D-2 formats," Broadcast Engineering, (August, 1988), 76-90.

Lehtinen, Rick. "Ghost canceling," Broadcast Engineering, (December, 1995), 12-14.

Leitch, Carolyn. "Telesat wins approval to fly DTH satellite", The Globe and Mail, (April 4, 1997).

Leitner, D.W. "Sculpting with light", SMPTE Journal, (March, 1997), 165-170.

Libin, Louis. "ATV Update," Broadcast Engineering, (April, 1995), 20-22; (May, 1995), 20-22; (April, 1996), 24, 134; (June, 1995), 22-24.

Liles, Bennett. "Intercoms: No longer an afterthought," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1995), 54-63.

Liles, Bennett. "Wireless microphones in the studio," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1995), 66-70.

Liska, Peter. "A Recording Revolution," Broadcaster, (March, 1990), 36-39.

Livingston, Phil. "D-3: The 1/2-inch digital format," Broadcast Engineering, (August, 1991), 68-71.

Livingston, Phil. "Panasonic D-5," Broadcast Engineering, (September, 1993), 80-82.

Livingston, Phil. "Panasonic DVCPRO," Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1995), 92-95.

Long, Mark. World Satellite Almanac: The Complete Guide to Satellite Transmission & Technology. Indianapolis, Indiana: Howard W. Sams & Company, 1985.

Lookabaugh, Tom, Dr. "Understanding video compression," Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1993), 26-36.

Lowel-Light Manufacturing, Inc. "Lowel Catalog," sales brochure, 1999.

Lyman, Steve. "Video Measurement Procedures, Development Report 6276," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Operations Development Department, (March, 1983).

Mahler, Henry. "A Television Resolution Comparison of 525 Line 4:3 Vs. 16:9 Vs. HDTV," SMPTE Journal, (January, 1998), 48-53.

Markley, Don. "The surprises just keep coming," Broadcast Engineering, (December, 1998), 48-54.

McEwen, Michael. "Digital television in Canada: managing the transition," Broadcaster, (January, 1999), 9-12.

McGoldrick, Paul. "Digital tape formats," Broadcast Engineering, (May,1996), 116.

Michaud-Herbst, Francois. "The Television Synchronization Signals: Tutorial on the RS 170A Standard, Development Report 6341," Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Operations Development Department, (Sept. 1982).

Ministry of Supply and Services Canada. Spectrum Allocations in Canada (chart). Ottawa: Supply and Services Canada, 1995.

MZTV Museum. Watching TV: Historic Televisions and Memorabilia from the MZTV Museum. Toronto: Royal Ontario Museum & MZTV Museum, 1995.

Neuhauser, Robert G. "Television Camera Tubes - A History But Not Yet an Obituary," SMPTE Journal, (September, 1990), 708-772.

Newbert, N., Nishima, R., Shudo, K., Yasuda, T., Takemura, M., Narita, S. "A variable-tracking playback development for professional S-VHS videotape recorders," SMPTE Journal, (June, 1993), 498-504.

NewMedia.Pro. "Plasma - the fourth element," newmedia.pro, (December, 1998), 15-29.

Norton, Eric. "Future MPEG Technology," Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1999), 144.

O'Brien, Richard S. and Monroe, Robert B. "101 Years of Television Technology," SMPTE Journal, (August, 1991), 606-629.

Oxford Analytica, Ltd. "High-definition TV a low priority," The Globe and Mail, (April 14, 1997.)

O�Brien, Richard S. "Videotape Recording," SMPTE Journal, (October, 1996), 593.

Palmer-Benson, Timothy B. "How VCRs work," Electronics and Technology Today, (April 1988), 48-52.

Panagiotou, George. "Cool-Lux introduces electroluminescence," Broadcast Engineering, (April, 1998), 150-154.

Panasonic. "AJ-D400". Sales brochure. 1999.

Penhune, James. "Digital TV: where's the consumer?" Broadcast Engineering, (December, 1998), 76-82.

Pizzi, Skip. "Optical disc video recording," Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1992), 26-36.

Pohlmann, Ken C. "The Dawn of DTV," Stereo Review, (December, 1998), 61-66.

Popular Electronics - TV's 30th Birthday, Popular Electronics, (June, 1957), 48.

Powell, Peter. "Virtual Sets," Visual Convergence, (March, 1999), 6-9.

Pritchard, D.H., and Gibson, J.J. "World Color Television Standards - Similarities and Differences," SMPTE Journal, (Feb. 1980), 111-120

QSI Systems, Inc. "Model VSID-24 Video Source Identifier." Sales brochure. 1992.

Robin, Michael. "Addendum to 'Worldwide Color Television Standards - Similarities and Differences," SMPTE Journal, (Dec. 1980), 948-949.

Robin, Michael. "Analog resolution," Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1998), 46-50.

Robin, Michael. "Digital 4:2:2 VTRs," Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1998), 38-42.

Robin, Michael. "Digital resolution", Broadcast Engineering, (April, 1998), 44-48.

Robin, Michael. "Monitoring video in a digital environment,", Broadcast Engineering, (August, 1998), 30-32.

Robin, Michael. "The concept of resolution," Broadcast Engineering, (February, 1999), 36-38.

Rodriguez, Aldolfo. "Upconversion and digital television," Broadcast Engineering, (July, 1998), 120-129.

Rosco. "Products List, Spring, 1995," sales brochure, 1995.

Ross, Ijeoma. "Canadians watching more TV, Stascan says,", The Globe and Mail, July 26, 1996, p. D1.

Rowan, Geoffrey. "AlphaStar signs off in latest satellite setback,", The Globe and Mail, August 7, 1997.

Sachtler. "Products for the News Gathering work." Sales brochure. 1994.

Saunders, Doug. "Digital service tackles cable", The Globe and Mail, (July 29, 1998.)

Schatz, Joseph G. "DTV's Rocky Road", Broadcast Engineering, (September, 1997), 70-78.

Scheraga, Morton, and Roche, Joseph. Video Handbook. Boland & Boyce, Inc., 1948.

Schouhamer Immink, Kees. "The Digital Versatile Disc (DVD): System Requirements and Channel Coding," SMPTE Journal, (August, 1996), 483-489.

Shaw, Jon. "Still-store technology," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1997), 106-109.

Smith, Doug. "The Stations within the Stations", Monitoring Times, (January, 1997), 68-69.

SMPTE. "1/2-in Type L - Records," "1/2-in Type L - Electrical Parameters, Control Code and Tracking Control," SMPTE Journal, (February, 1992), 109-117.

SMPTE. "1-in Type C - Basic System and Transport Geometry Parameters," "1-in Type C - Records," "1-in Type C Recorders and Reproducers - Longitudinal Audio Characteristics," "Tracking-Control Record for 1-in Type C Helical-Scan Television Tape Recording," "Video Record Parameters for 1-in Type C Helical-Scan Television Tape Recording," "Video and Audio Alignment Tapes and Procedures for 1-in Type C Helical-Scan Television Analog Recorders," SMPTE Journal, (January, 1992), 51-64.

SMPTE. "19-mm Type D-2 Composite Format - Tape Record," SMPTE Journal, (January, 1993), 93-96.

SMPTE. "Alignment Color Bar Test Signal for Television Picture Monitors," SMPTE Journal, (October, 1990), p. 872.

SMPTE. "Composite Analog Video Signal - NTSC for Studio Applications," SMPTE Journal, (January, 1993), 97-106.

SMPTE. "Critical Viewing Conditions for Evaluation of Color Television Pictures," SMPTE Journal, (September, 1992), 667-668.

SMPTE. "Mapping of Pictures in Wide-Screen (16:9) Scanning Structure to Retain Original Aspect Radio of the Work," SMPTE Journal, (October, 1998), 930-931.

SMPTE. "Supplemental Information for SMPTE 170M and Background on the Development of NTSC Color Standards," SMPTE Journal, (January, 1993), 106-112.

SMPTE. "Television Tape Recording Nomenclature," SMPTE Journal, (November, 1988), 928-936.

SMPTE. "Time and control code for television, audio and film - SMPTE 12M," SMPTE Journal, (July, 1999), 517-527.

Sony. "BVW-D600 Betacam SP." Sales brochure. 1994.

Sony. "DFS-500 DME Switcher," sales brochure, 1993.

Sony. "DVW-700 Digital Betacam." Sales brochure. 1994.

Sony. "DVW-A500 component digital VTR," sales brochure, 1994.

Sony. "DXC-D30, DXC-D30WS, PVW-D30, DSR-130 DVCam." Sales brochure. 1998.

Sony. "UVW-100." Sales brochure, 1994.

Sony. "Plasmatron: Flat panel display for widescreen video and multimedia applications", press release, date unknown.

Stanton, Julia and Michael. "Video Recording: A History," SMPTE Journal, (March, 1987), 253-263.

Stanton Video Services, Inc. "Jimmy Jib Lite." Sales brochure. 1999.

Statistics Canada. "Household Facilities and Equipment" 64-202-XPB, 1997.

Steen, Roald. "CCDs vs. camera tubes: a comparison," Broadcast Engineering, (May, 1991), 90-109.

Stewart, Sandy. Here's Looking at Us: A Personal History of Television In Canada. Toronto: CBC Enterprises, 1986.

Strand Lighting. "3480 & 3480TV 1000 & 2000W spotlights," sales brochure, 1992.

Strand Lighting. "Fresnelite 3380 & 3380TV 500& 1000W spotlights," sales brochure, 1992.

Strand Lighting. "Leko 1000W ellipsoidal spotlights," sales brochure, 1992.

Strand Lighting. "The soft option from Strand," sales brochure, date unknown.

Stringer, David. Various scripts from Acme School of Stuff, Acme Service Desk, and Not Another Science Show. Toronto: Image North Productions, 1986 through 1990.

Sugaya, Hiroshi. "The Videotape Recorder: Its Evolution and the Present State of the Art of VTR Technology," SMPTE Journal, (March, 1986), 301-309.

Surtees, Lawrence. "Telesat to build first Anik F satellite", The Globe and Mail, (March 28, 1998.)

Task Force on the Implementation of Digital Television. Canadian Television in the Digital Era. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada, 1997.

Tektronix, Inc. "Grass Valley Group Model 200 Series Production Switchers,", sales brochure, 1990.

Tektronix, Limited. 1720 Series Vectorscope. Service manual.

Tektronix, Limited. 1730 Series Waveform Monitor. Service manual.

Tektronix, Limited. 1910 Digital Generator. Service manual.

Telex, Inc. "RTS Pocket Keypanel Programming Guide," 1992.

Texas Instruments. "DLP: The state of the art in projection display," sales and public relations brochure, (May, 1996).

Tiffen Manufacturing Corporation. "Tiffen Filter Facts,", sales brochure, date unknown.

Tubbs, David A. "Virtual sets: Studios in a box," Broadcast Engineering, (November 1998), 90-92.

Turner, Corey. "How ONtv's virtual set became a reality," Broadcaster, (June, 1999), 14.

Turner, Robert R. "1,001 questions to ask before deciding on a nonlinear video editing system," SMPTE Journal, (March, 1994), 160-173.

Uchida, H., Isaka, H., Yoshida, T., Safar, J. "DVCPRO: a comprehensive format overview." SMPTE Journal, (July, 1996), 406-418.

Vega Corporation. "Wireless Microphones: Application and Technology Considerations." Monograph, 1988.

Vigneaux, Stevan. "Moving to server-based production," Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1994.), 70-74.

Vinten, Limited. Studio pedestal and head service manuals. Date unknown.

Waltner, Charles. "ATV: the price of admission", Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1996), 110-112.

Waltner, Charles. "If you build it, will they come?" Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1998), 142-147.

Whitaker, Jerry. "Future watch: A look ahead", Broadcast Engineering, (December, 1997), 33-70.

Whitaker, Jerry. "HDTV Update: dealing with the Bonanza factor", Broadcast Engineering, (October, 1997), 88-96.

Whitaker, Jerry. "TV's tested history", Broadcast Engineering, (March, 1998), 156-158.

Zettl, Herbert. Television Production Handbook, Fifth Edition. Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1992.